41. In _______ transmission, the channel capacity is shared by both communicating devices at all times.
a. simplex
b. half-duplex
c. full-duplex
d. half-simplex
Answer: full-duplex

42. In the original ARPANET, _______ were directly connected together.
a. IMPs
b. host computers
c. networks
d. routers
Answer: (a).IMPs

43. _______ are special-interest groups that quickly test, evaluate, and standardize new technologies.
a. Forums
b. Regulatory agencies
c. Standards organizations
d. All of the above
Answer: (a).Forums

44. Which agency developed standards for physical connection interfaces and electronic signaling specifications?
a. EIA
b. ITU-T
c. ANSI
d. ISO
Answer: (a).EIA

45. _______ refers to the structure or format of the data, meaning the order in which they are presented.
a. Semantics
b. Syntax
c. Timing
d. All of the above
Answer: (b).Syntax

46. ________ defines how a particular pattern to be interpreted, and what action is to be taken based on that interpretation.
a. Semantics
b. Syntax
c. Timing
d. None of the above
Answer: (a).Semantics

47. _______ refers to two characteristics: when data should be sent and how fast it can be sent.
a. Semantics
b. Syntax
c. Timing
d. none of the above
Answer: (c).Timing

48. Data flow between two devices can occur in a _______ way.
a. simplex
b. half-duplex
c. full-duplex
d. all of the above
Answer: (d).all of the above

49. In a ______ connection, two and only two devices are connected by a dedicated link.
a. multipoint
b. point-to-point
c. (a) and (b)
d. none of the above
Answer: (b).point-to-point

50. In a ________ connection, three or more devices share a link.
a. multipoint
b. point-to-point
c. (a) and (b)
d. none of the above
Answer: (a).multipoint

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