11. Which data structure is used to give better heuristic estimates?
a. Forwards state-space
b. Backward state-space
c. Planning graph algorithm
d. Planning graph algorithm
Answer: (d).Planning graph algorithm

12. Which is used to extract solution directly from the planning graph?
a. Planning algorithm
b. Graphplan
c. Hill-climbing search
d. All of the mentioned
Answer: (b).Graphplan

13. What is the starting level of planning graph?
a. Level 3
b. Level 2
c. Level 1
d. Level 0
Answer: (d).Level 0

14. Which kind of problem are suitable for planning graph?
a. Propositional planning problem
b. Planning problem
c. Action problem
d. None of the mentioned
Answer: (a).Propositional planning problem

15. What is meant by persistence actions?
a. Allow a literal to remain false
b. Allow a literal to remain true
c. Both a & b
d. None of the mentioned
Answer: (b).Allow a literal to remain true

16. What is called inconsistent support?
a. If two literals are not negation of other
b. If two literals are negation of other
c. Mutually exclusive
d. None of the mentioned
Answer: (b).If two literals are negation of other

17. Natural language processing is divided into the two sub fields of:
a. symbolic and numeric
b. time and motion
c. algorithmic and heuristic
d. understanding and generation
Answer: (d).understanding and generation

18. Which of the following computer language is used for artificial intelligence?
c. C
Answer: (b).PROLOG

19. The area of AI that investigates methods of facilitating communication between people and computers is:
a. natural language processing
b. symbolic processing
c. decision support
d. robotics
Answer: (a).natural language processing

20. A natural language generation program must decide:
a. what to say
b. when to say something
c. why it is being used
d. both a and b
Answer: (d).both a and b

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