More than zero but less than that of an equivalent 3NF decomposition
Proportional to the size of F+
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Q. Relation R with an associated set of functional dependencies, F is decomposed into BCNF. The redundancy (arising out of functional dependencies) in the resulting set relations is.
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Q. A table 'student' with schema (roll, name, hostel, marks), and another table 'hobby' with schema (roll, hobbyname) contains records as shown below:
ROLL NAME HOSTEL MARKS
1798 Manoj Rathod 7 95
2154 Soumic Banerjee 5 68
2369 Gumma Reddy 7 86
2581 Pradeep Pendse 6 92
2643 Suhas Kulkarni 5 78
2711 Nitin Kadam 8 72
2872 Kiran Vora 5 92
2926 Manoj Kunkalikar 5 94
2959 Hemant Karkhanis 7 88
3125 Rajesh Doshi 5 82
The following SQL query is executed on the above tables:
from student natural join hobby
where marks > = 75 and roll between 2000 and 3000;
Relations S and H with the same schema as those of these two tables respectively contain the same information as tuples. A new relation S’ is obtained by the following relational algebra operation: S’ = ∏hostel ((σs.roll = H.roll (σmarks > 75 and roll > 2000 and roll < 3000 (S)) X (H)) The difference between the number of rows output by the SQL statement and the number of tuples in S’ is
Q. Suppose the adjacency relation of vertices in a graph is represented in a table Adj(X,Y). Which of the following queries cannot be expressed by a relational algebra expression of constant length?
Q. Given the following input (4322, 1334, 1471, 9679, 1989, 6171, 6173, 4199) and the hash function x mod 10, which of the following statements are true?
1. 9679, 1989, 4199 hash to the same value
2. 1471, 6171 hash to the same value
3. All elements hash to the same value
4. Each element hashes to a different value
Q. Database table by name Loan_Records is given below.
Borrower Bank_Manager Loan_Amount
Ramesh Sunderajan 10000.00
Suresh Ramgopal 5000.00
Mahesh Sunderajan 7000.00
What is the output of the following SQL query?
FROM ( (SELECT Borrower, Bank_Manager
FROM Loan_Records) AS S
NATURAL JOIN (SELECT Bank_Manager,
FROM Loan_Records) AS T );
Q. Consider a simple checkpointing protocol and the following set of operations in the log.
(start, T4); (write, T4, y, 2, 3); (start, T1); (commit, T4); (write, T1, z, 5, 7);
(start, T2); (write, T2, x, 1, 9); (commit, T2); (start, T3); (write, T3, z, 7, 2);
If a crash happens now and the system tries to recover using both undo and redo operations, what are the contents of the undo list and the redo list
Q. The maximum number of superkeys for the relation schema R(E,F,G,H) with E as the key is
Q. Consider the following transaction involving two bank accounts x and y.
read(x); x := x – 50; write(x); read(y); y := y + 50; write(y)
The constraint that the sum of the accounts x and y should remain constant is that of
Q. Which level of locking provides the highest degree of concurrency in a relational data base?
Q. In a schema with attributes A, B, C, D and E following set of functional dependencies are given
A → B A → C CD → E B → D E → A
Which of the following functional dependencies is NOT implied by the above set?
Q. Consider the table employee(empId, name, department, salary) and the two queries Q1 ,Q2 below. Assuming that department 5 has more than one employee, and we want to find the employees who get higher salary than anyone in the department 5, which one of the statements is TRUE for any arbitrary employee table?
Q1 : Select e.empId
From employee e
Where not exists
(Select * From employee s where s.department = “5” and
Q2 : Select e.empId
From employee e
Where e.salary > Any
(Select distinct salary From employee s Where s.department = “5”)
Q. In SQL, relations can contain null values, and comparisons with null values are treated as unknown. Suppose all comparisons with a null value are treated as false. Which of the following pairs is not equivalent?
Q. From the following instance of a relation scheme R (A, B, C), we can conclude that :
A B C
1 1 1
1 1 0
2 3 2
2 3 2
Q. Consider the following three schedules of transactions T1, T2 and T3. [Notation: In the following NYO represents the action Y (R for read, W for write) performed by transaction N on object O.]
(S1) 2RA 2WA 3RC 2WB 3WA 3WC 1RA 1RB 1WA 1WB
(S2) 3RC 2RA 2WA 2WB 3WA 1RA 1RB 1WA 1WB 3WC
(S3) 2RA 3RC 3WA 2WA 2WB 3WC 1RA 1RB 1WA 1WB
Which of the following statements is TRUE?
Q. In an inventory management system implemented at a trading corporation, there are several tables designed to hold all the information. Amongst these, the following two tables hold information on which items are supplied by which suppliers, and which warehouse keeps which items along with the stock-level of these items. Supply = (supplierid, itemcode) Inventory = (itemcode, warehouse, stocklevel) For a specific information required by the management, following SQL query has been written
Select distinct STMP.supplierid
From Supply as STMP
Where not unique (Select ITMP.supplierid
From Inventory, Supply as ITMP
Where STMP.supplierid = ITMP.supplierid
And ITMP.itemcode = Inventory.itemcode
And Inventory.warehouse = 'Nagpur');
For the warehouse at Nagpur, this query will find all suppliers who
Q. Which option is true about the SQL query given below?
SELECT firstName, lastName
WHERE lastName BETWEEN 'A%' AND 'D%';
Q. Which of the following command is used to delete a table in SQL?
Q. Table A
Id Name Age
12 Arun 60
15 Shreya 24
99 Rohit 11
Id Name Age
15 Shreya 24
25 Hari 40
98 Rohit 20
99 Rohit 11
Id Phone Area
10 2200 02
99 2100 01
Consider the above tables A, B and C. How many tuples does the result of the following SQL query contains?
WHERE A.age > ALL (SELECT B.age FROM B
WHERE B. name = "arun")
Q. Consider the following relational schema:
Suppliers(sid:integer, sname:string, city:string, street:string)
Parts(pid:integer, pname:string, color:string)
Catalog(sid:integer, pid:integer, cost:real)
Consider the following relational query on the above database:
FROM Suppliers S
WHERE S.sid NOT IN (SELECT C.sid
FROM Catalog C
WHERE C.pid NOT IN (SELECT P.pid
FROM Parts P
WHERE P.color<> 'blue'))
Assume that relations corresponding to the above schema are not empty. Which one of the following is the correct interpretation of the above query?
Q. Relation R is decomposed using a set of functional dependencies, F and relation S is decomposed using another set of functional dependencies G. One decomposition is definitely BCNF, the other is definitely 3NF, but it is not known which is which. To make a guaranteed identification, which one of the following tests should be used on the decompositions? (Assume that the closures of F and G are available).
Q. The relation book (title, price) contains the titles and prices of different books. Assuming that no two books have the same price, what does the following SQL query list?
from book as B
where (select count(*)
from book as T
where T.price > B.price) < 5
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